They can be trusted.
The Intimately Oppressed It is possible, reading standard histories, to forget half the population of the country. The explorers were men, the landholders and merchants men, the political leaders men, the military figures men.
The very invisibility of women, the overlooking of women, is a sign of their submerged status. In this invisibility they were something like black slaves and thus slave women faced a double oppression. The biological uniqueness of women, like skin color and facial characteristics for Negroes, became a basis for treating them as inferiors.
True, with women, there was something more practically important in their biology than skin color-their position as childbearers-but this was not enough to account for the general push backward for all of them in society, even those who did not bear children, or those too young or too old for that.
It seems that their physical characteristics became a convenience for men, who could use, exploit, and cherish someone who was at the same time servant, sex mate, companion, and bearer-teacher-warden of his children.
Societies based on private property and competition, in which monogamous families became practical units for work and socialization, found it especially useful to establish this special status of women, something akin to a house slave in the matter of intimacy and oppression, and yet requiring, because of that intimacy, and long-term connection with children, a special patronization, which on occasion, especially in the face of a show of strength, could slip over into treatment as an equal.
An oppression so private would turn out hard to uproot. Earlier societies-in America and elsewhere-in which property was held in common and families were extensive and complicated, with aunts and uncles and grandmothers and grandfathers all living together, seemed to treat women more as equals than did the white societies that later overran them, bringing "civilization" and private property.
In the Zuni tribes of the Southwest, for instance, extended families- large clans-were based on the woman, whose husband came to live with her family.
It was assumed that women owned the houses, and the fields belonged to the clans, and the women had equal rights to what was produced. A woman was more secure, because she was with her own family, and she could divorce the man when she wanted to, keeping their property.
Women in the Plains Indian tribes of the Midwest did not have farming duties but had a very important place in the tribe as healers, herbalists, and sometimes holy people who gave advice.
When bands lost their male leaders, women would become chieftains. Women learned to shoot small bows, and they carried knives, because among the Sioux a woman was supposed to be able to defend herself against attack. The puberty ceremony of the Sioux was such as to give pride to a young Sioux maiden: Walk the good road, my daughter, and the buffalo herds wide and dark as cloud shadows moving over the prairie will follow you Be dutiful, respectful, gentle and modest, my daughter.
If the pride and the virtue of the women are lost, the spring will come but the buffalo trails will turn to grass. Be strong, with the warm, strong heart of the earth. No people goes down until their women are weak and dishonored.
It would be an exaggeration to say that women were treated equally with men; but they were treated with respect, and the communal nature of the society gave them a more important place. The conditions under which white settlers came to America created various situations for women.
Where the first settlements consisted almost entirely of men, women were imported as sex slaves, childbearers, companions. Inthe year that the first black slaves came to Virginia, ninety women arrived at Jamestown on one ship: They were to be obedient to masters and mistresses.
They were poorly paid and often treated rudely and harshly, deprived of good food and privacy.
Of course these terrible conditions provoked resistance. Living in separate families without much contact with others in their position, indentured servants had one primary path of resistance open to them: Of course the masters and mistresses did not interpret it that way, but saw the difficult behavior of their servants as sullenness, laziness, malevolence and stupidity.
The court records of Virginia and other colonies show masters brought into court for this, so we can assume that these were especially flagrant cases; there must have been many more instances never brought to public light.
InElizabeth Sprigs wrote to her father about her servitude: What we unfortunate English People suffer here is beyond the probability of you in England to Conceive, let it suffice that I one of the unhappy Number, am toiling almost Day and Night, and very often in the Horses druggery, with only this comfort that you Bitch you do not halfe enough, and then tied up and whipp'd to that Degree that you'd not serve an Animal, scarce any thing but Indian Corn and Salt to eat and that even begrudged nay many Negroes are better used, almost naked no shoes nor stockings to wear Whatever horrors can be imagined in the transport of black slaves to America must be multiplied for black women, who were often one-third of the cargo.
I saw pregnant women give birth to babies while chained to corpses which our drunken overseers had not removed On board the ship was a young negro woman chained to the deck, who had lost her senses soon after she was purchased and taken on board. A woman named Linda Brent who escaped from slavery told of another burden: But I now entered on my fifteenth year-a sad epoch in the life of a slave girl.
My master began to whisper foul words in my ear.
Young as I was, I could not remain ignorant of their import. My master met me at every turn, reminding me that I belonged to him, and swearing by heaven and earth that he would compel me to submit to him.
If I went out for a breath of fresh air, after a day of unwearied toil, his footsteps dogged me. If I knelt by my mother's grave, his dark shadow fell on me even there.Welcome to the American Perspectives Volume I eText Website for Houston Community College. Follow the instructions below to redeem the access code found in the Pearson Learning Solutions Student Access Kit that was packaged with your book.
Technology In Action, Introductory - United States Edition, Alan Evans, Mary Anne Poatsy, Kendall Martin A Survey of Worcestershire by Thomas Habington V2 (), Thomas Habington, John Amphlett Four Freedoms Trimmers, School Specialty Publishing, Carson Dellosa Publishing.
Learn questions 6 chapter 1 history zinn with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of questions 6 chapter 1 history zinn flashcards on Quizlet. The SAT Reasoning Test is a long examination (three hours and forty-five minutes) and has three main divisions: Math,; Reading and; Writing.; There are 10 sections in .
This section contains a brief summary and account of 67 Panamanian and Honduran flag merchant ships lost or damaged during World War II upon which American Merchant Seamen and U.S. Naval Armed Guard were lost or wounded.
Zinn Chapter 1- Study questions 1. Howard Zinn explains that his purpose as a historian and his purpose for writing A People’s History of the United States, is to tell history from the view points of the forgotten members of history, such as the Cubans during the Spanish-American War.