XCFiles from Datalight is a proprietary, full-featured implementation, intended to be portable to bit systems. Technical specialities[ edit ] File name lookup[ edit ] exFat employs a filename hash-based lookup phase to speed certain cases, which is described in US Patent Quick File Name Lookup Using Name Hash, which document perhaps contains additional details helpful in understanding of the file system, in Appendix A. File and cluster pre-allocation[ edit ] Like NTFS, exFAT can pre-allocate disk space for a file by just marking arbitrary space on disk as 'allocated'.
The term is not generally used in elections in which all ballots are blank and thus all voters must write in the names of their preferred candidates.
Blank ballot election systems reduce the cost of printing the ballots, but increase the complexity of casting and counting votes. Such systems are used in Japan and used in the past in the French Second Republic and in elections in the Philippines from World War 2 until the general election.
United States[ edit ] Historical success of write-in candidates[ edit ] Generally, write-in candidates can compete in any election within the United States. Typically, write-in candidates have a very small chance of winning, but there have been some strong showings by write-in candidates over the years.
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June InHerbert Hoover won the Republican Massachusetts presidential primary on write-ins, pollingInFranklin D. Roosevelt won the Democratic New Jersey presidential primary with 34, write-ins.
InThomas Dewey won the Republican Pennsylvania presidential primary withwrite-ins. InHarold Stassen won the Republican Pennsylvania presidential primary with 81, write-ins.
InRobert A. Taft won the Republican Nebraska presidential primary with 79, write-ins, Estes Kefauver won the Democratic Pennsylvania presidential primary with 93, write-ins and Dwight Eisenhower won the Republican Massachusetts presidential primary withwrite-ins.
InDwight Eisenhower won the Republican Massachusetts presidential primary with 51, write-ins. Kennedy won the Democratic Pennsylvania presidential primary withwrite-ins along with the Democratic Massachusetts presidential primary with 91, write-ins.
Ina write-in campaign organized by supporters of former U. Senator and vice presidential nominee Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Senator Eugene McCarthywho campaigned actively against Johnson's Vietnam war policies, was on the ballot. Declaring himself the " none of the above candidate" and using his Concord Principles as his platform, Nader received 3, votes from Democrats and 3, votes from Republicans.
Senate[ edit ] Republican William Knowland was elected in to the U. Senate from California, for a two-month term. The special election for the two-month term featured a November ballot with no names printed on it, and all candidates in that special election were write-in candidates.
Murkowski had filed, and won, a lawsuit requiring election officials to have the list of names of write-in candidates distributed at the polls,  and subsequently won the election with a wide enough margin over both Miller, and Democratic Party candidate Scott T.
McAdamsto make moot the write-in ballots that had been challenged by Miller. Tague was elected to the U. House as a write-in independent Democrat, defeating the Democratic nominee, John F.
In Republican Charles F. His father, Congressman Charles F. As member of the Little Rock school boardAlford launched his write-in campaign a week before the election because the incumbent, Brooks Hayswas involved in the incident in which president Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce racial integration at Little Rock Central High School.
In NovemberRepublican Joe Skeen was elected to Congress in New Mexico as a write-in candidate, because of a spoiler candidate who also happened to be a write-in. No Republican had filed to run against the incumbent Democrat, Harold L.
Runnelsbefore the close of filing. Runnels died on August 5,and the Democrats requested a special primary to pick a replacement candidate. The New Mexico Secretary of State allowed the Democrats to have a special primary, but did not allow the Republicans to have a special primary, because they had already gone with no candidate.
So Skeen ran as a write-in candidate. Packard lost the primary by 92 votes inand then mounted a write-in campaign as an independent. Following the elections, he re-aligned himself as a Republican.
Strickland was running for Governor, and had to give up his congressional seat. Wilson, though, did not qualify for the ballot because only 46 of the 96 signatures on his candidacy petition were deemed valid, while 50 valid signatures were required for ballot placement.
Democrat Dave Loebsack entered the Democratic primary in Iowa's second congressional district as a write-in candidate after failing to get the required number of signatures. Jerry McNerney ran as a write-in candidate in the March Democratic Primary in California's 11th congressional district.
Shelley Sekula-Gibbs failed as a write-in candidate in the November 7, election to represent the 22nd Texas congressional district in the th Congress for the full term commencing January 3, The seat had been vacant since June 9,due to the resignation of the then representative Tom DeLay.The Write & Cite App is a reliable and easy to use writing, research, and citation reference tool that will help you with all your writing needs including.
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