This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Kidney disease is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE. Despite the improvement in the medical care of SLE in the past two decades, the prognosis of lupus nephritis remains unsatisfactory.
What is discoid lupus erythematosus? Lupus erythematosus LE is a group of diverse persistent autoimmune inflammatory diseases and often affects the skin.
Discoid lupus erythematosus DLE is the most common chronic form of cutaneous lupus. It is characterised by persistent scaly, disk-like plaques on scalp, face and ears that may cause pigmentary changes, scarring and hair loss. What causes discoid lupus erythematosus? Factors leading to DLE include: Genetic predisposition Toxins such as cigarette smoke Hormones The manifestations of DLE are due to loss of regulation of the immune system in the skin.
Who gets discoid lupus erythematosus? DLE can affect males and females of any age. DLE is 5 times more common in females than males, and onset is most often between the ages of 20 and 40 years.
The estimated prevalence is around 20—40 people in everyDLE may be more common in patients with darker coloured skin than in fair Caucasians.
DLE is more Research paper on lupus and more severe in smokers compared to non-smokers. Smoking also reduces the effectiveness of antimalarials and other therapies.
Typically, systemic symptoms are mild in these patients. Signs of localised DLE include: Initial lesions are dry red patches These evolve to indurated red or hyperpigmented plaques with adherent scale Follicular keratosis, ie plugs of keratin within hair follicles, is noted when surface scale is removed, eg with tape carpet-tack sign Older lesions are hyperpigmented, especially on the edge of the plaques Scarring results in central loss of pigment white patches and skin atrophy tissue loss DLE is typically located on nose, cheeks, ear lobe and concha It may involve lips, oral mucosa, nose or eyelids Scalp lesions cause temporary or permanent patches of hair loss Hypertrophic warty lupus erythematous describes red, very thickened plaques Signs of generalised DLE include: Plaques on anterior chest, upper back, backs of hands Sometimes, plaques on upper and lower limbs Can affect palms and soles Can affect anogenital mucosa The patient's main concern is the unsightly appearance of the plaques, but they may also be itchy or sore.
Chronic discoid lupus erythematosus DLE More mages of cutaneous lupus erythematosus How is discoid lupus erythematosus diagnosed?
DLE is often diagnosed from its distribution in sun-exposed sites and the clinical appearance of the plaques. After a careful history, the patient with DLE should undergo a thorough general examination, to find out if other forms of lupus may be present.
The diagnosis is usually confirmed by skin biopsyin which typical features of lupus are noted: Direct immunofluorescence is often positive in lesional skin in DLE positive lupus band test. Total activity score is made up of: Degree of redness 0—3 and scale 0—2 Mucous membrane involvement 0—1 Recent hair loss 0—1nonscarring alopecia 0—3 Total damage score is made up of: The degree of dyspigmentation 0—2and scarring 0—2 Persistence of dyspigmentation more than 12 months doubles the dyspigmentation score Scalp scarring 0, 3, 4, 5, 6 Blood tests Patients with DLE will usually have blood tests at the time of diagnosis and from time to time afterwards.
Does discoid lupus erythematosus have any complications? Discoid lupus erythematous may leave permanent scars, even when active disease has responded to treatment. What is the treatment for discoid lupus erythematosus?
Preventative measures The following measures are important to reduce the chance of flares of DLE. Sunscreens alone are not adequate. Indoors, some patients may also need to stay away from glass windows or these can be treated with UV-blocking films.
Vitamin D supplements should be recommended for those who strictly avoid the sun. Topical therapy Intermittent courses of potent topical corticosteroids are the main treatment for DLE.
They should be applied accurately to the skin lesions for several weeks. Potency should be selected to suit body site and thickness of the plaque. Very potent topical steroids may cause thinning of the surrounding skin and increase blood vessel formation telangiectasia. Intralesional injections of corticosteroids are sometimes used, especially for hypertrophic DLE.
The calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream can also be used. Camouflage makeup is useful to improve appearance.You’ll get the latest news and resources tailored to the UW Milk Quality community. Whether you’re a dairy producer, veterinarian or other supporting consultant, there’s something for everyone.
Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various parts of the body, especially the skin, joints, blood, and kidneys.
People currently think that lupus is considered an autoimmune disease.
Autoimmune means that the body's immune system tries to fight itself, as well as other invaders. All papers are for research and /5(12). Sutherlandia frutescens / microphylla, an indigenous Southern African shrub commonly known as "cancer bush / kankerbos" has a long traditional African and settler folklore medicinal history, but has recently been hyped by a band of ethno-pirates (those exploiting the traditional culture and intellectual property of indigenous people for financial gain) as a treatment for a ridiculously long.
What is Lupus? Lupus is a chronic disease with a variety of symptoms caused by inflammation in one or more parts of the body. It is estimated that it affects more than 50, Canadians and million schwenkreis.com is not contagious and is not related to AIDS or cancer.
Lupus: An Autoimmune Disease - Sometimes lupus can cause disease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and/or both discoid lupus and systemic lupus are more common in women than men (about eight times more common).
Research by The National Resource Center on Lupus estimates that at least million Americans have lupus.. Systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE, is the most common form of lupus, affecting.