Mind you, the disorders and their descriptions that follow are not my own ideas; they have been created by the American Psychiatric Association, and they are the mainstay of all contemporary psychotherapy that functions on the concept of psychiatric diagnosis.
Substance-induced sexual dysfunction Substance-induced sleep disorder Substance-induced disorders are distinct from independent co-occurring mental disorders in that all or most of the psychiatric symptoms are the direct result of substance use.
This is not to state that substance-induced disorders preclude co-occurring mental disorders, only that the specific symptom cluster at a specific point in time is more likely the result of substance use, abuse, intoxication, or withdrawal than of underlying mental illness. A client might even have both independent and substance-induced mental disorders.
For example, a client may present with well-established independent and controlled bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence in remission, but the same client could be experiencing amphetamine-induced auditory hallucinations and paranoia from an amphetamine abuse relapse over the last 3 weeks.
Symptoms of substance-induced disorders run the gamut from mild anxiety and depression these are the most common across all substances to full-blown manic and other psychotic reactions much less common. For example, acute withdrawal symptoms from physiological depressants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines are hyperactivity, elevated blood pressure, agitation, and anxiety i.
Virtually any substance taken in very large quantities over a long enough period can lead to a psychotic state. Because clients vary greatly in how they respond to both intoxication and withdrawal given the same exposure to the same substance, and also because different substances may be taken at the same time, prediction of any particular substance-related syndrome has its limits.
What is most important is to continue to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and their relationship to abstinence or ongoing substance abuse over time. Most substance-induced symptoms begin to improve within hours or days after substance use has stopped. Notable exceptions to this are psychotic symptoms caused by heavy and long-term amphetamine abuse and the dementia problems with memory, concentration, and problem solving caused by using substances directly toxic to the brain, which most commonly include alcohol, inhalants like gasoline, and again amphetamines.
Following is an overview of the most common classes of substances of abuse and the accompanying psychiatric symptoms seen in intoxication, withdrawal, or chronic use.
Alcohol In most people, moderate to heavy consumption is associated with euphoria, mood lability, decreased impulse control, and increased social confidence i.
In a person who has many life stresses, losses, and struggles, which is often the case as addiction to alcohol proceeds, the mood lability and lowered impulse control can lead to increased rates of violence toward others and self.
Prolonged drinking increases the incidence of dysphoria, anxiety, and such violence potential. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include agitation, anxiety, tremor, malaise, hyperreflexia exaggeration of reflexesmild tachycardia rapid heart beatincreasing blood pressure, sweating, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, and perceptual distortions.
More severe withdrawal is characterized by severe instability in vital signs, agitation, hallucinations, delusions, and often seizures. The best predictor of whether this type of withdrawal may happen again is if it happened before.
Alcohol-induced deliriums after high-dose drinking are characterized by fluctuating mental status, confusion, and disorientation and are reversible once both alcohol and its withdrawal symptoms are gone, while by definition, alcohol dementias are associated with brain damage and are not entirely reversible even with sobriety.
Caffeine When consumed in large quantities, caffeine can cause mild to moderate anxiety, though the amount of caffeine that leads to anxiety varies. Caffeine is also associated with an increase in the number of panic attacks in individuals who are predisposed to them.
Cocaine and Amphetamines Mild to moderate intoxication from cocaine, methamphetamine, or other stimulants is associated with euphoria, and a sense of internal well-being, and perceived increased powers of thought, strength, and accomplishment.
In fact, low to moderate doses of amphetamines may actually increase certain test-taking skills temporarily in those with attention deficit disorders see this in appendix D and even in people who do not have attention deficit disorders.
However, as more substance is used and intoxication increases, attention, ability to concentrate, and function decrease. With street cocaine and methamphetamines, dosing is almost always beyond the functional window. As dosage increases, the chances of impulsive dangerous behaviors, which may involve violence, promiscuous sexual activity, and others, also increases.
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is defined by the Fourth Edition Text Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, a handbook that mental health professionals use to diagnose mental disorders) as one of ten personality schwenkreis.com a group, these disorders are described by DSM-IV-TR as "enduring pattern[s] of inner experience and behavior" that. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has many symptoms, signs, causes, risk factors, and treatments. Other personality disorders closely related to it include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. Paranoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: Co-occurring Personality disorders affect % of the adult US population. A personality disorder is a very rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior.
Many who become chronic heavy users go on to experience temporary paranoid delusional states. As mentioned above, with methamphetamines, these psychotic states may last for weeks, months, and even years.
Unlike schizophrenic psychotic states, the client experiencing a paranoid state induced by cocaine more likely has intact abstract reasoning and linear thinking and the delusions are more likely paranoid and less bizarre Mendoza and Miller After intoxication comes a crash in which the person is desperately fatigued, depressed, and often craves more stimulant to relieve these withdrawal symptoms.
This dynamic is why it is thought that people who abuse stimulants often go on week- or month-long binges and have a hard time stopping. At some point the ability of stimulants to push the person back into a high is lost probably through washing out of neurotransmittersand then a serious crash ensues.
These anhedonic states can persist for weeks. As mentioned above, heavy, long-term amphetamine use appears to cause long-term changes in the functional structure of the brain, and this is accompanied by long-term problems with concentration, memory, and, at times, psychotic symptoms.
Hallucinogens Hallucinogens produce visual distortions and frank hallucinations. Some people who use hallucinogens experience a marked distortion of their sense of time and feelings of depersonalization. Hallucinogens may also be associated with drug-induced panic, paranoia, and even delusional states in addition to the hallucinations.
Hallucinogen hallucinations usually are more visual e. The existence of a marijuana-induced psychotic state has been debated Gruber and Popealthough a review of the research suggests that there is no such entity. A few people who use hallucinogens experience chronic reactions, involving prolonged psychotic reactions, depression, exacerbations of preexisting mental disorders, and flashbacks.
Nicotine Clients who are dependent on nicotine are more likely to experience depression than people who are not addicted to it; however, it is unclear how much this is cause or effect.
In some cases, the client may use nicotine to regulate mood. Whether there is a causal relationship between nicotine use and the symptoms of depression remains to be seen. At present, it can be said that many persons who quit smoking do experience both craving and depressive symptoms to varying degrees, which are relieved by resumption of nicotine use see chapter 8 for more information on nicotine dependence.
Opioids Opioid intoxication is characterized by intense euphoria and well-being.Some specific personality disorders have been shown to result in an increased risk of drug use. One study looked at alcohol dependent patients and found that % were obsessive compulsive, % were paranoid and % were dependent.
Paranoia can ‘destroy ya’: Paranoid personality disorder creates destructive effects and treatment challenges Problematic paranoia, however, is brought on by either mental illness or drug use. Marijuana is known for causing paranoia, because of THC’s effect on the brain’s cannabinoid (CB1) receptors.
Treating paranoid. Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others.
A person with schizotypal personality. Personality disorder; paranoia (F22); Oth psychoactv substance use, unsp w psych disorder, unsp; Drug induced paranoia; Drug induced psychosis; Drug induced psychotic disorder; Drug-induced paranoid state; Psychosis, drug induced; Other or unknown substance-induced psychotic disorder, without use disorder.
The hallmarks of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) are grandiosity, a lack of empathy for other people, and a need for admiration. People with this condition are frequently described as.
Paranoid Personality Disorder. Personality disorder is a matter of false judgments of value.
Listed below are the false value judgments that are at the root of Paranoid Personality Disorder.