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Focus on service singular steers attention to the process, patterns, and benefits of exchange, rather than the units of output that are exchanged e. S-D logic argues that in order to create value, that is to maintain and increase wellbeing and viability, actors engage in interdependent and reciprocally beneficial service exchange Lusch and Vargo, Hence, value creation occurs in networks in which resources are exchanged among multiple actors and is therefore more accurately conceptualized as value cocreation Vargo and Lusch,Vargo, Maglio and Akaka, Recently, S-D logic has moved toward a dynamic, systems orientation in which value cocreation is coordinated through shared institutions norms, symbols, and other heuristicsoften massive-scale resource integration and service exchange processes Lusch and Vargo,Vargo and Lusch Axioms and foundational premises[ edit ] The core ideas of S-D logic are formulated into foundational premises.
Stephen Vargo and Robert Lusch put forth the original eight foundational premises of S-D logic in the seminal, article. Since then, the foundational premises have gone through modifications and additional premises have been added as S-D logic has been extended and elaborated Vargo and Lusch, Currently, S-D logic has eleven foundational premises FPs.
Five of these have been identified the axioms of S-D logic Vargo and Lusch,from which the other FPs could be derived. FP2 Indirect exchange masks the fundamental basis of exchange. FP3 Goods are a distribution mechanism for service provision.
FP4 Operant resources are the fundamental source of strategic benefit.
FP5 All economies are service economies. FP7 Actors cannot deliver value but can participate in the creation and offering of value propositions. FP8 A service-centered view is inherently customer oriented and relational.
S-D logic argues that it is always fundamentally service, rather than goods, per se, that actors exchange as they strive to become better off. The first axiom is at the heart of S-D logic, and thus foundational to the other FPs.
For example, it implies that 1 goods are distribution mechanisms for service provision FP3 and 2 all economies are service economies FP5.
It also follows that money, when it is involved in exchanges, represents rights to future service.
In other words, money can be viewed as a placeholder for future service and can be understood as a form of indirect service exchange that often masks the fundamental basis of exchange FP2. Rather, it suggests that value is something that is always cocreated through the interaction of actors, either directly or indirectly e.
This axiom also enables one to see more clearly that the service-oriented view is inherently relational, because value does not arise prior to exchange transaction, but rather following it, in the use of the exchanged resources, in a particular context and in conjunction with resources provided by other service providers.
This value creation is seen as unfolding, over time, with a consequence of continuing social and economic exchange, implicit contracts, and relational norms. This collaborative nature of value creation is best viewed from a higher level of aggregation than the dyad e.
That is, value co-creation through service-for-service exchange is at the very heart of society. It is also important to distinguish between co-production and the co-creation of value Lusch and Vargo, Co-production is thus relatively optional and its advisability depends on a host of firm and customer conditions.
This is different from co-creation of value, which is intended to capture the essential nature of value creation: Thus, the concept of resource-integrator does not just apply to the actor typically referred to as a "producer" e.
It sets the stage for thinking about the mechanics and the networked nature of value co-creation, as well as the process through which the resources for service provision are created or emerge, the patterns of resource integration and the availability of resources from various market-facing, public, and private sources.
It is through the resource integration and its many possible explicit and implicit combinations, facets, and intricacies that value is cocreated. In reciprocal service exchange all actors are both providers and beneficiaries. This axiom reinforces that value is experiential.
The key message of this axiom is that all value propositions e. That is, value must be understood in terms of the holistic combination of resources that lead to it, in the context of other potential resources Chandler and Vargo, It is thus always unique to a single actor and, it follows, can only be determined by that actor, or at least with the actor as the central referent.
It is important to note that here the term institution does not refer to an organization. Instead, institutions are humanly devised rules, norms, and beliefs that enable and constrain action and make social life predictable and meaningful Scott ; see also North Institutions and institutional arrangements—higher-order sets of interrelated institutions—enable actors to accomplish an ever-increasing level of service exchange and value cocreation under time and cognitive constraints in service ecosystems Vargo and Lusch, Call for Papers | Journal of Marketing Research Special Issue entitled: Education and Marketing: Decision Making, Spending, and Consumption.
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LEVEL The lessons are classiﬁed in three ways. Beginning Lessonsare the most basic lessons and context for learning and applying mathematical ideas. It is the sort of context.