German nationalism and unification

The two are often confused and frequently believed to mean the same thing. However, there is a vast difference between nationalism and patriotism. Nationalism means to give more importance to unity by way of a cultural background, including language and heritage.

German nationalism and unification

Prussia lost one half of its territory following the War of the Fourth Coalition. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna reinstated the Germanic states into the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire.

The Prussian-led custom union evolved into the Zollverein that included almost all Confederation states except the Austrian Empire. In the meantime, the Frankfurt Parliament was set up in and attempted to proclaim a united Germany, but this was refused by William IV.

The Erfurt Union was a short-lived attempt at a union of German states under a federation, proposed by the Kingdom of Prussia. The Austro-Prussian victory led to Schleswigthe northern part, being governed by Prussia and Holsteinthe southern part, being governed by Austria, as per the Treaty of Vienna Bismarck accused the Austrian Empire of stirring up troubles in Prussian-held Schleswig.

Prussian troops drove into Austrian-held Holstein and took control of the entire state of Schleswig-Holstein. Napoleon III declared war against Prussia. German-speaking Central Europe in the early 19th century[ edit ] Further information: The map is dominated by the Habsburg Monarchy orange and the Kingdom of Prussia bluebesides a large number of small states many of them too small to be shown on the map Prior toGerman-speaking Central Europe included more than political entities, most of which were part of the Holy Roman Empire or the extensive Habsburg hereditary dominions.

German nationalism and unification

They ranged in size from the small and complex territories of the princely Hohenlohe family branches to sizable, well-defined territories such as the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Prussia. These lands or parts of them—both the Habsburg domains and Hohenzollern Prussia also included territories outside the Empire structures made up the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which at times included more than 1, entities.

Among the German-speaking states, the Holy Roman Empire administrative and legal mechanisms provided a venue to resolve disputes between peasants and landlords, between jurisdictions, and within jurisdictions.

Through the organization of imperial circles Reichskreisegroups of states consolidated resources and promoted regional and organizational interests, including economic cooperation and military protection.

French period Under the hegemony of the French Empire —popular German nationalism thrived in the reorganized German states. Due in part to the shared experience, albeit under French dominance, various justifications emerged to identify "Germany" as a single state.

For the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb FichteThe first, original, and truly natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries.

Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins; they understand each other and have the power of continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly; they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole.

InNapoleon mounted a campaign in the German states to bring them back into the French orbit; the subsequent War of Liberation culminated in the great Battle of Leipzigalso known as the Battle of Nations.

In Octobermore thancombatants engaged in ferocious fighting over three days, making it the largest European land battle of the 19th century. The engagement resulted in a decisive victory for the Coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden, and it ended French power east of the Rhine.

Success encouraged the Coalition forces to pursue Napoleon across the Rhine; his army and his government collapsed, and the victorious Coalition incarcerated Napoleon on Elba. The Prussian cavalry pursued the defeated French in the evening of 18 June, sealing the allied victory.

Difference Between Nationalism and Patriotism | Difference Between

This system reorganized Europe into spheres of influencewhich, in some cases, suppressed the aspirations of the various nationalities, including the Germans and Italians. The Congress established a loose German Confederation —headed by Austria, with a "Federal Diet " called the Bundestag or Bundesversammlungan assembly of appointed leaders that met in the city of Frankfurt am Main.

In recognition of the imperial position traditionally held by the Habsburgs, the emperors of Austria became the titular presidents of this parliament. Ever since the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg had made himself King in Prussia at the beginning of that century, their domains had steadily increased through war and inheritance.

German nationalism and unification

Austrian-Prussian dualism lay firmly rooted in old Imperial politics. Those balance of power manoeuvers were epitomized by the War of the Bavarian Successionor " Potato War " among common folk. Even after the end of the Holy Roman Empire, this competition influenced the growth and development of nationalist movements in the 19th century.

Wartburg was chosen for its symbolic connection to German national character. Contemporary, colored wood engraving.

Many of the states did not have constitutions, and those that did, such as the Duchy of Badenbased suffrage on strict property requirements which effectively limited suffrage to a small portion of the male population.

Unification of Germany - Wikipedia

Although the Prussian army had been dramatically defeated in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedtit had made a spectacular comeback at Waterloo. Consequently, Prussian leaders expected to play a pivotal role in German politics.

Furthermore, implicit and sometimes explicit promises made during the War of Liberation engendered an expectation of popular sovereignty and widespread participation in the political process, promises that largely went unfulfilled once peace had been achieved. Agitation by student organizations led such conservative leaders as Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternichto fear the rise of national sentiment; the assassination of German dramatist August von Kotzebue in March by a radical student seeking unification was followed on 20 September by the proclamation of the Carlsbad Decreeswhich hampered intellectual leadership of the nationalist movement.

Consequently, these decrees drove the Burschenschaften underground, restricted the publication of nationalist materials, expanded censorship of the press and private correspondence, and limited academic speech by prohibiting university professors from encouraging nationalist discussion.

Deutschland] und die Revolution Germany and the Revolutionin which he concluded that it was both impossible and undesirable to repress the free utterance of public opinion by reactionary measures. Zollverein Boundaries of the German Confederation. Prussia is blue, Austria-Hungary yellow, and the rest grey.

Another institution key to unifying the German states, the Zollvereinhelped to create a larger sense of economic unification.Feb 17,  · In the first part of my lecture on German Unification (Deutsche Einigung), I discuss German Nationalism in the early 19th century and the attempt to unify Germany on the basis of liberal.

Other factors were also of importance to the unification of Germany including; Prussian Military strength, mistakes of others including the actions of Napoleon II, Attitudes of other states and the decline of Austria and also the growth of German Nationalism.

Absolutism and Constitutionalism - Multiple Choice. More Multiple Choice on Absolutism and Constitutionalism. Flashcards on Absolutism and Constitutionalism. Nationalism is an ideology that emphasizes loyalty, devotion, or allegiance to a nation or nation-state and holds that such obligations outweigh other individual or group interests.

Germany had been fragmented into as many as separate states ever since the Investiture Struggle in the Middle Ages had wrecked the power of the German emperors. The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January , in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.

Princes of the German states, excluding Austria, gathered there to proclaim William I of Prussia as German Emperor after the French capitulation in the Franco-Prussian War.

BBC - Higher Bitesize History - Bismarck and unification : Revision, Page3