Essay of smoking effects

It is also the leading cause of preventable death in the US. Its death toll isdeaths per year American Lung Association, n.

Essay of smoking effects

Jesse Steinfeld had raised concerns about this topic, leading to its inclusion in that report. For carbon monoxide CO specifically, levels in enclosed spaces could exceed levels then permitted in outdoor air.

The possibility that CO emitted from cigarettes could harm persons with chronic heart or lung disease was also mentioned. The report covered exposures and potential health consequences of involuntary smoking, and the researchers concluded that smoking on buses and airplanes was annoying to nonsmokers and that involuntary smoking had potentially adverse consequences for persons with heart and lung diseases.

Two studies on nicotine concentrations in nonsmokers raised concerns about nicotine as a contributing factor to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in nonsmokers. The chapter concluded with recommendations for research including epidemiologic and clinical studies. That chapter commented on the methodologic difficulties inherent in such studies, including exposure assessment, the lengthy interval during which exposures are likely to be relevant, and accounting for exposures to other carcinogens.

Involuntary smoking was also reviewed in the report, which focused on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking USDHHS Chapter 7 Passive Smoking of that report included a comprehensive review of the mounting information on smoking by parents and the effects on respiratory health of their children, data on irritation of the eye, and the more limited evidence on pulmonary effects of involuntary smoking on adults.

The chapter began with a compilation of measurements of tobacco smoke components in various indoor environments. The extent of the data had increased substantially since Bythe data included measurements of more specific indicators such as acrolein and nicotine, and less specific indicators such Essay of smoking effects particulate matter PMnitrogen oxides, and CO.

The report reviewed new evidence on exposures of nonsmokers using bio-markers, with substantial information on levels of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite. The report anticipated future conclusions with regard to respiratory effects of parental smoking on child respiratory health Table 1.

In its pages, the report covered the full breadth of the topic, addressing toxicology and dosimetry of tobacco smoke; the relevant evidence on active smoking; patterns of exposure of nonsmokers to tobacco smoke; the epidemiologic evidence on involuntary smoking and disease risks for infants, children, and adults; and policies to control involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke.

That report concluded that involuntary smoking Essay of smoking effects lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking adults and was associated with adverse effects on respiratory health in children.

The report also stated that simply separating smokers and nonsmokers within the same airspace reduced but did not eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke. All of these findings are relevant to public health and public policy Table 1. The lung cancer conclusion was based on extensive information already available on the carcinogenicity of active smoking, the qualitative similarities between secondhand and mainstream smoke, the uptake of tobacco smoke components by nonsmokers, and the epidemiologic data on involuntary smoking.

The three major conclusions of the report Table 1. In its monograph on tobacco smoking, the agency supported this conclusion on the basis of the characteristics of sidestream and mainstream smoke, the absorption of tobacco smoke materials during an involuntary exposure, and the nature of dose-response relationships for carcinogenesis.

In reaching this conclusion, the NRC report cited the biologic plausibility of the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer and the supporting epidemiologic evidence.

On the basis of a pooled analysis of the epidemiologic data adjusted for bias, the report concluded that the best estimate for the excess risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers married to smokers was 25 percent, compared with nonsmokers married to nonsmokers.

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With regard to the effects of involuntary smoking on children, the NRC report commented on the literature linking secondhand smoke exposures from parental smoking to increased risks for respiratory symptoms and infections and to a slightly diminished rate of lung growth.

Sincethe conclusions with regard to both the carcinogenicity of secondhand smoke and the adverse effects of parental smoking on the health of children have been echoed and expanded Table 1.

Essay of smoking effects

Inthe U. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the 31 epidemiologic studies of secondhand smoke and lung cancer published up to that time was central to the decision to classify secondhand smoke as a group A carcinogen—namely, a known human carcinogen.

Estimates of approximately 3, U. The report also covered other respiratory health effects in children and adults and concluded that involuntary smoking is causally associated with several adverse respiratory effects in children.

Essay of smoking effects

There was also a quantitative risk assessment for the impact of involuntary smoking on childhood asthma and lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Surgeon General, addressing adverse effects from exposure to tobacco smoke In the decade since the EPA report, scientific panels continued to evaluate the mounting evidence linking involuntary smoking to adverse health effects Table 1.

The epidemiologic evidence on involuntary smoking has markedly expanded sinceas have the data on exposure to tobacco smoke in the many environments where people spend time. An understanding of the mechanisms by which involuntary smoking causes disease has also deepened.

The agency estimated the annual excess deaths in the United States that are attributable to secondhand smoke exposure for specific disorders: Estimated annual excess deaths for the total U. The agency also estimated that between 24, and 71, low birth weight or pre-term deliveries, aboutepisodes of childhood asthma new cases and exacerbationsbetweenandcases of lower respiratory illness in children, and aboutcases of middle ear infections in children occur each year in the United States as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke.

The health effects of involuntary smoking have not received comprehensive coverage in this series of reports since Reports since then have touched on selected aspects of the topic: As involuntary smoking remains widespread in the United States and elsewhere, the preparation of this report was motivated by the persistence of involuntary smoking as a public health problem and the need to evaluate the substantial new evidence reported since This report substantially expands the list of topics that were included in the report.

Additional topics include SIDSdevelopmental effects, and other reproductive effects; heart disease in adults; and cancer sites beyond the lung. For some associations of involuntary smoking with adverse health effects, only a few studies were reviewed in e.

Consequently, this report uses meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence as appropriate. Following the approach used in the report The Health Consequences of Smoking, USDHHSthis report also systematically evaluates the evidence for causality, judging the extent of the evidence available and then making an inference as to the nature of the association.

Organization of the Report This twenty-ninth report of the Surgeon General examines the topics of toxicology of secondhand smoke, assessment and prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke, reproductive and developmental health effects, respiratory effects of exposure to secondhand smoke in children and adults, cancer among adults, cardiovascular diseases, and the control of secondhand smoke exposure.Included: cause and effect essay content.

Preview text: Smoking cause and effect EssayOne of the most common problems today that are killing people, all over the world, is smoking.

Many people start this horrible habit because of stress, personal issues and high blood pressure. Essay on smoking tobacco causes cancer can also talk about the symptoms of cancer and when such symptoms occur.

This is important since it helps in proper diagnosis. A sample smoking essay may talk about drugs and cigarettes that are smoked beside being poisonous.

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Human body is very vulnerable to harmful effects of smoking, and it can harm our heart, lungs, blood circulation, bones, stomach, mouth, eyes, skin, reproduction and fertility. Smoking effect on heart and lung in very serious manner, in case of heart nicotine raises blood pressure and blood gets clot easily.

Causes and Effects of Smoking. Smoking is considered as one of the most dangerous habits of an individual, especially for women and children eventually leading to several complications and causing grave health problems. There are numerous harmful as well as dangerous effects related with smoking.

Why take the risk of this awful fate? Not only will smoking causes diseases, but it also can cause smokers to experience various side effects, which include heart burn, ulcers, and gallstones. There are many more diseases and side effects, but these are the well-known illnesses. Posts Smoking effects to health essays.

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Cause and effect essay on smoking