Team Members Literature review Organizations that fail to communicate adequately with various audiences during a crisis can suffer serious consequences. One only needs to look at the several highly publicized organizational crises over the years to know the importance of effective communication when things go badly.
Especially influential on organizational communication, systems theory explains how and why people form groups, each of which is a system as well as part of a larger system. Its focus is on the whole system rather than on its parts, and how these parts interact to affect the whole system.
As previously stated, PA is composed of three basic subsystems: Although the military mainly uses each subsystem interdependently, the entire system is much more than the sum of the contributions of each individual part.
Ultimately, the systems approach should serve as the foundation for a more effective management practice.
This becomes the basis upon which our ideal model for PA interaction was created Figure 1. Farace, Monge and Russell define communication as the exchange of symbols that are commonly shared by the individuals involved, and which evoke quite similar symbol-referent relationships in each individual.
Organizational communication goes a bit further. It is more than the daily interactions of individuals within organizations, it is the process through which organizations create and shape events Shockley-Zalabak, The study of organizational communication centers on processes of interaction means by which people obtain information, form opinions, make decisions, merge into the organization, leave the organization and create rapport with one another Shockley-Zalabak, Through communication, people coordinate their actions to achieve individual and organizational goals Shockley-Zalabak, Effective organizational communication within the PA arena is critical.
According to Huse and Bowditchan organization is effective and efficient when it has the ability to be integrated and to consider three different perspectives simultaneously: Looking into this further, a literature review by Campbell found that more than 30 different criteria were used for the measurement of organizational effectiveness Praeger, These measurement criteria ranged from specific aspects of organizational effectiveness to a global view.
Herein lies the basic theme of this paper, suggesting that military PA organizations, in an effort to gain greater efficiency, should attempt to both integrate and simultaneously consider its three subsystems internal information, media and community relations as well as best practices in the civilian corporate PR arena, when approaching organizational issues.
Cross-functionality Cross-functionality is the idea that members from different departments of a unit or organization form teams, bringing a variety of talents and resources to bear on the accomplishment of the overall mission of the unit or organization Proehl, It also has application to PA in two ways: Cross-functional teams consist of people who serve in different departments or perform different functions within the organization Wellins, et al.
Some companies establish permanent and temporary cross-functional teams. The permanent teams work on issues companies face on a routine basis, while temporary teams are formed to handle special projects such as implementing new procedures, reorganizing procedures and processes, or solving unexpected problems.
By their nature, cross-functional teams offer members opportunities to receive training and experience outside their areas of expertise in order to meet the goals of the team Wellins, et al.
literature review. You should be able to summarize the works you’ve chosen, for sure, but you should also. Increasing Importance of Communication in Organisations: literature review Posted on October 27, by John Dudovskiy Increasing importance of communication in organisations has been discussed by a number of authors, the most notably in the works of Mangion (), Guffey and Loewy (), Zeng () and DeVito (). What Is a Literature Review? A literature review integrates both primary and secondary sources in order to support a main topic. It offers a careful analysis of all sources, often comparing them in order to further support a point.5/5.
This has several benefits including team flexibility, understanding among the functional areas of how the others work, and an increased sense of ownership and pride among team members. Applications for Public Affairs at the Command Level Previous studies suggest the idea that marketing is here to stay and that successful companies must integrate marketing departments into their strategic planning or suffer for it in their profit margins Shipley, Many people within organizations have preconceived notions about the value of marketing or PA, and based on outdated ideas that do not consider the important role they play in the overall mission accomplishment; resist their inclusion into the upper echelons.
Shipley suggests a number of ways to combat this: PA practitioners need to understand that achieving a shift in mindset like this is extremely difficult.
With that in mind, practitioners need to do all they can to fit in. Cross-Functionality Applications for Public Affairs at the Office Level Many of the theories used in developing cross-functional teams find their origins in small group organizational communication theories.
A model that has utility for cross-functional application in PA, both at the organizational and departmental levels, is discussed by Tjosvold In this model there are two inputs: The composition and structure of the group and the resources and structure of the organization.
The inputs work together forming the group process. Using those inputs, the group develops a process to work together, and then applies that process to whatever tasking comes down the road. Figure 1The Walton, et al. Public Relations Theory Public relations is the attempt by information, persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution Bernays, Keywords: expatriates success, cross cultural training The aim of this chapter is to discuss the theoretical basis on the success of expatriates in their international assignments.
In this chapter, the author discuss two main factors on the success of expatriates in their international assignments, namely, cross-cultural communication and the effectiveness of cross-cultural training.
A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a .
This literature review begins with the goal of advancing the understanding of crises communications, so that future scholars can explain and predict this phenomenon. Crises Defined A problem in crises communications literature is the lack of a common definition for what constitutes a crisis.
This literature review begins with the goal of advancing the understanding of crises communications, so that future scholars can explain and predict this phenomenon.
Crises Defined A problem in crises communications literature is the lack of a common definition for what constitutes a crisis. 1 LearnHigher Oral Communication Literature Review Ravinder Chohan and Kate Smith, Brunel University Introduction This literature review aims to bring together sources of .
A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of .